|CMT-06-02||Benchmarking (Benchmark Development)|
|CMT-06-04||Lifecycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities|
|CMT-06-05||Centre of Excellence*|
|CMT-06-06||Cement Kiln Co-Generation|
|CMT-06-07||Hazardous Wastes - Best Practices for Co-Processing and Management in Cement Kilns*|
|CMT-07-08||High Energy Biomass Fuels for Cement Production|
|CMT-07-09||The Effect of Cement Concrete as a CO2 Sink|
The Cement Task Force has identified, as a first priority, addressing the lack of basic data among Partner countries that is crucial to the development and success of the Task Force’s future work. Examples of such data include emissions and emissions intensity of CO2 and air pollutants, energy consumption and intensity, and usage of alternative fuels and raw materials. Japan has organized and funded this data-collection effort. The information acquired from this work will contribute to a greater understanding among Partners regarding their current energy consumption levels, emissions and practices. The data collected will also be the basis for the Task Force’s development of benchmarks and best practices. Japan is the participating Partner in this project.
Task Force Partners will develop benchmarks for evaluating the emissions reduction potential based directly on the results of the Status Report project (see Project 1 – Status Report). Partners will define benchmarks and select key performance indicators, such as CO2 emissions, energy efficiency, recycling, and emissions of air pollutants. In addition, the Cement Task Force will estimate emissions reduction potential and set benchmarks; identify potential barriers to emissions reductions; and provide recommendations to Partner country governments in order to meet reduction goals. Japan and the United States are participating Partners in this project.
Partner countries have identified several legal and regulatory barriers to the cleaner, more efficient production of cement. The Cement Task Force will undertake a study of comparative legal and regulatory barriers to, and incentives for, reducing the CO2 intensity of cement production and deploying cleaner manufacturing technology. In addition, Partners will identify the legal or regulatory barriers to, and incentives for, the use of concrete to mitigate climate change impacts. The United States will fund and organize this work. The ultimate goal of this project is two-fold: Partners will seek to reduce or eliminate legal and regulatory barriers to cleaner, more efficient production of cement and the use of concrete to mitigate climate change impacts, and work aggressively to promote incentives. The United States is the participating Partner in this project.
In addition to improving the Partners’ cement production processes, the Task Force seeks to identify and draw attention to ways in which concrete can mitigate climate change impacts. The Task Force will evaluate applications of concrete that mitigate climate change impacts; undertake collaborative research into life cycle energy efficiency of concrete applications; and identify further steps that governments can take to encourage sustainable development using concrete products. This effort may include evaluation of energy efficient structures, urban heat island mitigation, vehicle fuel efficiency, and structural durability. The United States will fund and organize this work. Partners will summarize existing literature and programs to evaluate applications of concrete and identify potential research projects and make recommendations on further steps that governments can take to encourage sustainable development using concrete products. The United States is the participating Partner in this project.
Partners will use the proposed Center of Excellence to share information on best practices; research emerging technologies; and promote improved environmental performance to Partner governments, cement industry associations and major cement manufacturers. The Center will provide scholarships and lecturing/research opportunities through which Partner country applicants can work for up to a year on an agreed Asia-Pacific Partnership relevant project with a research team at the China Building Materials Academy in Beijing. Finally, the Center will facilitate skilled worker exchanges between participating Partner countries in order to enhance the diffusion of technical expertise between companies in areas of energy efficiency, greenhouse gas reduction and the use of alternative fuels and raw materials for cement production. The Center of Excellence will be located in China. Australia, China, and Japan are participating Partners in this project.
This project, a cement kiln electricity cogeneration demonstration plant, will facilitate the demonstration and deployment of energy-efficient and cleaner production formulation technologies in Partnership countries. The demonstration plant will document the economic and energy efficiency gains obtained by utilizing cement plant waste heat to generate electricity. The Project combines two established technologies, cement kiln operation and cogeneration technology, in a novel manner to reduce the greenhouse gas emission intensity from cement production, increase cement kiln energy use efficiency, reduce kiln energy consumption, and generate electricity. In addition, this project seeks to demonstrate the technical and engineering challenges involved in retrofitting cogeneration facilities utilizing cement kiln waste heat; characterize the energy efficiency gains obtained from the installation of cogeneration facilities in a typical cement plant; disseminate the expertise of Partner countries on cogeneration technology; and encourage and facilitate deployment of cogeneration technology to Partners. The plant will be located in Australia. Australia and China are participating Partners in this project.
Project 7 is an Umbrella project that is expected to provide cement kilns with a reliable, affordable supply of renewable energy, while serving as a clean, safe destruction technology for waste management in the Asia Pacific Partnership member counties. It will do this by promoting the use of hazardous and other industrial wastes as a reliable alternate, renewable source of energy for clinker production in cement kilns. This project is expected to increase awareness of options for using alternative fuels, promote installation of enabling technologies, and reduce emissions from fossil fuels. Australia, China, India and the United States are the participating Partners in this Project.
Project 8 is intended to promote biomass fuels as an alternate, renewable source of energy for clinker production in cement kilns. In addition to processing existing biomass waste materials, new technologies are now available to capture CO2 from stack emissions and convert the carbon into high-energy biomass algae by cultivation in enclosed photo-bioreactor systems. This algae could be harvested and fed directly into the kilns as fuel, or processed further into high-value products. This project will explore the feasibility of using various types of biomass as a reliable source of renewable energy. Australia, China, India, Japan, Korea and the United States are the participating Partners in this Project.
It is not widely known that concrete absorbs CO2 over time; further research should be conducted to study this phenomenon. This project will conduct the needed research and develop an ‘estimation model’ of CO2 absorption from concrete structures and used concrete. It will then suggest a revision of the calculation protocol of CO2 emissions to the IPCC. Partner countries include Australia, India, Korea, and the United States.
Specialists in energy saving, environmental management and cement production in the Japanese cement industry will visit cement factories in China and India to carry out performance diagnosis and provide recommendations on how factories can introduce optimal technologies and operational approaches. The objective of the project is to specifically provide short-term and medium-to-long term advice on energy saving and environmental management that is appropriate to local conditions in cement factories in China and India. The recommendations will help guide cement industries in the Partner countries to exercise well-informed judgments, while recognizing energy saving and environmental management technologies that can lead to improved efficiency and productivity. The lead Partner is Japan with participating Partners being China and India.